1. I do not want the job of moderating/leading moderation of a Relay.FM listener community. I have enough plates spinning.
2. I have run a fan community since 2002 — a small CCM/folk band from Texas that had a lot of fans for a while, and when their official fan group lay fallow, some friends and I took it up. The band hasn’t recorded for years, and one of the artists quite publicly imploded in a public divorce based on infidelity — and yet the community lives on.
We used a forum from 2002 through, well, sometime last year. The forum is still there, but the traffic was going way, way down over time. I actually considered closing things, but I decided to start a Slack to see if that would work. Our traffic, while it will never come close to the peak of 2003-06, is back up. It’s a tool that serves a purpose.
Here is my basic take on this:
Slack is great for ephemeral conversations (a random channel is great for this, even as it has the capacity to go weird, creepy, or over-the-line) as well as focused ones that get archived. We use a bot that pushes an announcement out to the Announcements channel whenever a new channel is created. It mostly works.
Forums are great for longer-form discussion and cross-referencing. They work if people are good with writing those things. They can be cantankerous and nasty. Being a religious-oriented thing, we ended up creating an At Your Own Risk board where the rules were relaxed and people knew that mean things may be said. That said, it stayed within limits.
In both cases, norms will build on your own, but my strong, strong, strong advice is this:
Whatever form of community-building you choose, you will need to be fairly involved (say 5-15 hours a week) with it for anywhere from two weeks to three months, full stop. If you are not involved to that degree, you run the risk of losing control of it very quickly. If you aren’t involved, you cannot effectively pass on the norms and values that you want the place to have.
Our RMFO forum would’ve never existed in the forum that it did at its peak if I and other leaders weren’t able to spend large amounts of time on it. I estimate that I was on the forums a good six hours a day for the period 2002-06, more if work were slow or it were a weekend. Note that I didn’t have a girlfriend at the time, and while I did have a job — a great job! — I could keep an eye on things if I weren’t terribly consumed with work. Running the forum wasn’t a job, but I put that level of effort into it.
A Relay community would require a lot of work, and I mean a lot of work. I think that it would be very successful very quickly because of the breadth and depth of their shows. If you summed the number of Twitter followers that each host and show have, de-duplicate the group, and argue that maybe 3% of them would even want to join a community like that, you’ve probably got 1,000-ish people there to start.
To manage that group, Stephen and Myke would probably want to hire a few people — 3-5, likely, with someone nominally in charge — to run the thing, plus schedule appearances to be in the community. That’s an investment in building a community, one that won’t pay off financially in the short term and may not in the long term. Doing a Relay.FM community correctly requires a time and money commitment that I’m fairly sure that the founders are unwilling to make at this time.
You are free, of course, to start your own Relay.FM fan community. That’s what Bryan and Megan did back in the day, and what I and others did in picking up the mantle. Start a good one, prove the concept, and maybe you get the job. May I suggest #RelayOurCommunity to get started?
So back last July, I started my new job and returned to aerospace. It was a great time, and I was truly excited to be a part of it. I was so excited that I started keeping a work journal. Every day, I would jot down a few sentences on what I’d done / thought that day. I generally did this at the end of the day as a way to set myself up for the next day, as it was a great chance to leave myself a note or similar. OmniFocus does really make me happy, but a few thoughts in Day One were good, too. [Yes, I had a recurring OmniFocus task to remind me to write the notes.]
Anyhow, here’s the note for Thursday, July 17th — my fourth day at work:
That first line documented the first time I’d ever seen her face. She came into the meeting late, which I found a little surprising. Junior people aren’t supposed to be that busy, and she couldn’t be much more than 30. I didn’t really pay any attention to her, because the meeting was indeed talking about things that interested me — mainly the integration of improved avionics air assembly fans that could be used at a lower voltage while still providing the throughput that we needed.
But then the meeting turned to other things, and then I grew disinterested. It was then that I looked in front of me and really took her in.
“Wow, she’s really pretty.”
“Wow, she has a lot of freckles.”
“Wow, she doesn’t wear any makeup at all — not even eye makeup or mascara. Yes, those eyelashes are red.”
Then, because she was busy, she left the meeting with a wave that trailed from her arm near her waist, a meek offering of exit that I’ve come to know well in the year since.
I saw that face this past Wednesday when we were driving around looking for wedding venues. Because it was mid-day, she was driving and I was the passenger; she was focused on the road, and I looked over and saw her as I had 363 days earlier. It was the same face, the same studied look, the same no-frills appearance. She was even more beautiful to me, mainly because of all that we’ve shared over the last year and how well we’ve come to know each other — better than I’d have ever expected to in just a year.
I could tell you a bunch of things about her, but I’ll go with these:
She doesn’t wear makeup because of one day in her last job down at NASA Johnson Space Center. You can’t wear makeup inside of a space suit, because you’d have all of that mess gumming things up. She decided that she felt like she looked great without it, so she stopped wearing it. Thank you, spacesuit regulations, from letting her go from “adorable strawberry blonde” to “adorable natural strawberry blonde” before I came to know her. (As she says, she switched from foundation to sunscreen.)
We look upon our failings as things to work with and not things to constantly trip over.
She loves her family so very well and enjoys spending time with mine.
She’s fun. (You’ll have to meet her to prove me out on that one.)
I didn’t know her name when she left. It was a couple of weeks before I’d know thanks to a couple of group emails that I could cross-reference with LinkedIn. I befriended her, although that was probably a bit under false pretenses, as she thought that I was new to town. (Ahem. I moved here in 1997, went to college here, and worked in aerospace for eight years before leaving for a few years.)
One Friday in mid-August, she asked me to come and play board games with her friends. Although I don’t really play them other than to be sociable, that’s exactly what I wanted to be doing. It proved to be a long, fun weekend that preceded her leaving town for a long, agonizing phone-call-filled week. She came back, and then we threw it all on the line. Then it went from there.
For nearly 11 months, she’s been my near-constant companion. As much as the work trip I’ll take next week — new job, more about that later — will be very good for my training, it’ll take me away from her for nearly five days, and that already feels like an eternity. We just fit together, and while I do lament the time that I previously had to read books with impunity, the wonder of this new and amazing love eclipses any frustrations I may have over losing my old life.
In two months, we will be wed. She will be Danielle Morris, and I will be forever hers. In so many ways, I already am; I welcome this new stage of life.
The new job gave me a MacBook Pro! Given the option, I wanted the Mac, and I figured that I’d get an Air, which would’ve been more than fine. Instead, I have the 15″ Retina beast.1 They allow me to install my own software on it, which they won’t support, which is also more than fine. Hell, they even gave me free access to the Mac App Store, which meant that I just clicked a few Install buttons and had all the apps that I really wanted on it.
The big thing that I wanted was OmniFocus. I’ve used it for years, having migrated away from Alex King’s Tasks Pro2 to a system that was more GTD-focused. I always sorta fought with OF1,3 but OF2 is pretty damn amazing.
I live out of OmniFocus. If I think of something that I need to do, it’s Ctrl-Option-Space, a little typing, a couple tabs, and Enter and my task is saved. Today, I was talking with my colleague when I thought of something that I needed to capture. I said, “Give me a second,” and eight seconds later, i was back to the conversation. What was that task item? I couldn’t tell you now, four hours later. But I don’t have to know, because OmniFocus will tell me come Monday morning.
What did OF delight me by doing? Well, I have a Folder title Geocent, the name of my company. I have projects in it: Onboarding for all of the things that I have to do to get spun up as a new employee,4Recurring for tasks I have to do every so often,5 single-action lists for the various projects that I’m working on, and then I’ll create projects for things that have a sequence to them.6
The joy — no really, the joy — of this was Focusing on that folder and then going to Forecast.
Normally Forecast would show everything that’s Due soon, from these work tasks to me needing to take pills tonight, reading Ezekiel, and finding my PayPal debit cards. Nope! Focus has me focused on exactly work things. Can I see those things in my work OmniFocus install? Yep! Do I want to see them? Nope! I want that focus, and OF gives me a freaking laser.
In OmniFocus 1, I would’ve had to create a Perspective and filter it around, tweaking and tweaking. I expected to have to do that. When it worked exactly as I wanted, I was so happy — happy enough to unlock my phone and make two tweets. ((I won’t put Tweetbot on this machine, and I’m never logging into Facebook on it, either.))
This made my day, and my day was already pretty great because, you know, I have this great job.
insurance filing, 401(k) election, badging at NASA MSFC, etc. ↩
work journaling and time recording daily, internal and project office reporting weekly, safety and quality reporting monthly ↩
These may be less valuable to me given that OF is still unfortunately a solo and not a groupware program, but we’ll see. If I have solo work, like developing a complex engineering deliverable, I’ll probably use it. ↩
My story with manned spaceflight starts with my parents and older brother. Both of my parents were in college in the 1960s, the heyday of the US manned space program. In the span of time between the last few bits of Dad’s sophomore year in high school to his last year in graduate school, we went from Al to Neil and Buzz. The manned missions on the moon span another set of milestones: Neil and Buzz landed about six weeks after my parents got married, and Apollo 17 was on the way to the moon when my brother was born.
Then it comes to me. I was born between almost equidistant between the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and STS-1. I remember launches as a kid, but only one really sticks out from the rest. January 28, 1986 was a tough day for NASA and the nation, really. We lost seven astronauts that day, the first time that we had lost a crew off of the ground. I was seven and in Mrs. Leach’s first grade class. I lived in an Air Force town, and though the Shuttle program was well on its way — this was flight #25 in not quite five years — the presence of Christa McAuliffe guaranteed that the teachers in our school1 would be interested.
But we missed watching the launch live. Again, this was 1986, so there was no Twitter to alert us to the tragedy, no cell phones with urgent texts, or anything else of that sort. There was just a TV broadcast that was eerily silent. Warning bells were going off in my head, even at age 7: someone is always talking over the launch, so why are we not hearing the NASA guys here? About the time that I was close to forming these as cogent thoughts:
We were watching the first replay. Mrs. Leach screamed, because she had met McAuliffe during the selections for the Teacher in Space Project. ((Or so someone once told me.)) One of the other teachers had to calm her down. I don’t remember if my classmates were upset, but I sure was. Somewhere after the fog of the rest of that day, two thoughts emerged: the fact that people were willing to risk their lives to explore space makes that important and I want to be a part of that, especially if that means that I can make sure that never happens again.
Sometime in second grade or so, my parents got me this amazing picture book of photos taken by various NASA probes, most of them being from the two Voyager probes. ((I have tried off and on to find this book at my house, because it’s one of those things that I would keep. I sure wish that I could link to it on Amazon, because the discovery found in it made me really thirst for space exploration.)) The sense of wonder that this book (and others) brought to me was enticing: all of these worlds were out there for man to explore.
When it came time to return to space, I was two days shy of 10. We were back! was the song in my heart. I remember that my childhood best friend and I clipped every last thing that we could find from the newspapers — Dayton, Columbus, Cincinnati, and national — about the flight. We geeked the fuck out about it. That mission went off just fine, with minor hurdles with a flash evaporator and a radio antenna.
I don’t think that it was ever really clear to me in primary school that, if I wanted to work in manned spaceflight, I needed to have stellar grades, especially in math and science. I was that self-driven kid who cried over Bs on single assignments. I was interested in everything,2 and my grades reflected that. School was a game for me, and the rewards were A grades. I wanted them, and I got them. School came easily to me, and I won’t apologize for that.
My father retired from the Air Force in 1990, and in 1991, our family moved to Mississippi, with my brother off to college and me into 7th grade. Years later, I would reflect that I was essentially ready for the academic rigors of high school in Mississippi when I arrived, but I assuredly wouldn’t have been socially ready for them. I tried to throw myself into the subjects that I hadn’t already tackled in Ohio — at one point, I did know all of the county seats of Mississippi and could place all 82 counties on a map. ((Those skills have atrophied.)) Nothing available to me was going to push me toward the goal of manned spaceflight, and the early 90s were not Internet-friendly in Mississippi due to its relative poverty and population sparsity.
I whiled away my time reading Tom Clancy novels and looking toward the future. I wanted to attend The Mississippi School for Mathematics and Science, which my father had heard about before we even left Ohio through his professional society. It was the carrot at the end of the stick, and I would get there. I took as many academic classes as I could in my first high school. I was through the math curriculum in two years, knowing that MSMS had a calculus curriculum waiting for me if I could do all the prep work to get to its starting point.
If I hadn’t been accepted to MSMS, I would’ve just jammed my last two years of high school into one and finished a year early. If I had, I would not have been ready for college, not in the way I was after two years in Columbus. MSMS is a public, taxpayer-supported, statewide, residential math and science magnet high school for juniors and seniors. For most of us who went there, it was essentially starting college two years early, but with far more boundaries on what we could and couldn’t do.3 Whether you were from a great school district in one of the bigger cities in Mississippi for from a dirt poor, rural district, MSMS was the route to top colleges and universities. Deborah Fallows did the school’s mission justice with a piece for The Atlantic.
At that point, MSMS was about getting into a good engineering school for aerospace engineering. I still wasn’t totally firm on what aerospace engineers did, but I wanted to be one4 anyway. The plan was pretty simple: go to a school where I could co-op and work in manned spaceflight so I could have a leg up come graduation.
That plan totally worked. It worked better than I could have imagined.
In August 1997, I enrolled at The University of Alabama in Huntsville, the unloved half-sister of the UofA system. I studied aerospace engineering, finishing my degree program in seven full-time semesters (and one half-time summer semester) thanks to all of the advanced placement courses and articulation agreements that MSMS afforded me. Those 7-1/2 semesters were spread over five years because I dove deeply into the co-op world.5
In August 1999, I stepped on campus at Teledyne Brown Engineering and started an engineering path. I worked for a friendly aerospace engineer from Indiana named Scott. Scott taught me a lot about being a good engineer, and I like to think that I was one because of his influence: sweating the details, working it out, questioning things, asking for second opinions when you’ve been staring at the problem for too long.
I worked on a lot of fun things early on in my career. The big one was Space-DRUMS®, a reactor that provided a metal-forming environment on the ISS. If you visit that link and scroll down to the fourth page, you’ll see the behemoth in all its glory. I mostly worked with the argon gas system and the chamber’s interaction with the US Lab‘s vacuum system.6 Scott threw me in the deep end of the pool on it, but that was just fine with me. You can pull up PopSci’s gallery of what DRUMS looks like if you’re interested.
Along the way, Scott left the company, and in that period of time, I got to work directly for my boss, Ed. I picked up a little of Scott’s work,7 but at that time Ed was working on building unpressurized flight support equipment (FSE) to fly pre-positioned on-orbit replacement units (ORU). Now let me de-mystify that with some images from a 92-page NASA briefing8 and eight years of FSE work.
Unpressurized: sitting outside the confines of the ISS, exposed to the environment of space.
Flight Support Equipment: hardware that helps other hardware do its work. All of those blockish things are various ORUs (more on that in a sec). They have to be brought up to orbit by a rocketship, which means a sound structural connection must be provided. When stored “outside” in space, they have to be protected from the sun’s rays, hence all the white you see in NASA TV footage of spacecraft. They also have to be protected with active heating lest the hardware freeze on the shadowed side of the earth. Lastly, the payloads that use the FRAM system have access to command and data handling via Ethernet.
On-orbit replacement units (ORUs). Stuff breaks, but when you’re a couple hundred miles above your home, it’s a little hard to pull over and fix things. ORUs can be lots of things: batteries that are charged from the solar arrays and discharge their energy when the ISS is on the dark side of the Earth; the battery charge/discharge unit, which does that electrical switching; the control moment gyroscopes, which help provide attitude control to the station in the same way that you tilting your bike turns it; the ammonia pump circulators that keep the station cool; and many more.
Every time one of these components breaks — and they’re all pretty big, usually in the 3’x4’x3.5′ range — it has to be fixed by bringing in a spare. The below video from NASA has an overview of ELC 1’s ORUs after a time-lapse video of its installation on station (04:12).
This work was a lot of fun. All of the FSE in that video save for the grappler was built by a manufacturing team at TBE led by Ed. My role at the time of this work would’ve been best described as a project controls engineer. I would later go on to be an assistant project manager and later a project manager. About a month ago, I found my old employee evaluations. I guess that I was pretty good. I even won an award from NASA during my time as PM.
Unfortunately, with the end of the Shuttle program, those of us in the unpressurized FSE world — and it was mostly the group I worked in at TBE, but there were other suppliers — saw our work go away. NASA flew our hardware in Space Shuttles, and without a launch vehicle, we were at a standstill. There wasn’t a lot of work out there to be had, and since I had been easing my way out of engineering and into project management, I decided to make the leap and try something new. I had some personal things going on as well, and making a change seemed like a good idea.
It wasn’t. I jumped, and you’re supposed to jump if you have a good place to land, but where I landed wasn’t good, and it certainly wasn’t good for me. It ended very badly, and the next thing I knew, I was unemployed a week and a half before I turned 32.
So I went back to school: a year as an undergraduate, and two years of graduate school since. If I’d gone straight to graduate school — I didn’t think that I’d get in after bailing on a previous attempt — I’d be done by now. So I was underemployed, which mostly meant that I was out of work entirely. Let me tell you: that is one of the most demoralizing things you can be; I can’t really put it more strongly than that. My MITRE internship was a lot of fun last summer, but it mainly served to remind me that I Could Still Do This. I needed that badly.
In the last week of May, I found a job that looked interesting: Geocent SSE. I knew someone at Geocent — the VP I worked for at TBE was a VP there. I sent him a message asking for help. I mean, at this point, the goalie is pulled. I get contacted by a recruiter. We talk. She says that she’ll throw me in the pot later.
Two hours later, she says that Scott wants to talk with me on the next Tuesday. That’s where he had landed one job later. We met, found that we still have chemistry, and he filled me in on the job, which sounded amazing. The next day, the recruiter called me to make me a verbal offer, which I happily accepted. It took a month for it to become a written offer, but I accepted that one last Tuesday and have been running ever since. I started today.
When Apollo-Soyuz was in orbit, President Ford had a bunch of questions for the astronauts and cosmonauts. He asked Deke Slayton if he had any advice for would-be astronauts, seeing as he was the oldest astronaut yet. “Decide what you want to do,” Deke replied, “then never give up until you’ve done it.”
I decided to be an aerospace engineer. I did it. 1,508 days after I left, I’m back. They’re going to have to drag me away kicking and screaming.
I made this argument on a forum that I run, and so I’m going to make it here.
Here is my thing. The Heat will be better than the Cavs will be if LBJ joins each of their sides: see Tom Haberstroh’s analysis, which includes WARP; the Heat project to 57-25 and the Cavs to 55-27. The gap isn’t big, and LeBron has to be thinking beyond this year. D-Wade is done as a full-time ass-kicker, and Bosh is either at or near his peak. With the Cavs hounding Miller and Jesus Shuttlesworth with plans of bringing LeBron in, he will get the same deep shooting that he’s had in Miami1 to help him out in spreading the floor. Bosh is really the differentiator, because the Cavs don’t have someone of his caliber on the roster2, and none of Irving-Waiters-Wiggins-Thompson-Varejao are up to that level just yet3.
But when you look at a WARP analysis and see two wins’ difference for this year with the promise of better things to come as Irving matures and Thompson-Wiggins-Waiters figure out the NBA, well you’re in luck, because all of your key non-LeBron players are going to be on rookie-cap or second-level contracts. That’s just not the case in South Beach. If LeBron has to think that he’s going to carry a team this season to a title while they figure it out, wouldn’t it make more sense for him to be carrying a team on the way up?
Even if LeBron gets paired with Bosh for four more years in Miami, big guys don’t age as well as wings, and Bosh already has a ton of minutes on his legs (28,602, 36.5 MPG career), and we’ve already seen what happened when the Big Three became the Big Two. Bosh played less (32.0 MPG) last year, which is a good sign of Spo’s roster management4. But when you look at the guys near Bosh in Elo rankings, well, it’s not good. Guys in that cohort seem to break down around his age: Walton, Zo, DeBusschere, Arizin. While the guys in Miami are more known quantities, NBA players in their 30s age haphazardly.
Then there’s LeBron’s aging to account for. LeBron has played 33276 minutes in 842 games, 39.5 MPG. He’ll turn 30 this season, which will be his 12th in the NBA. Take five seconds to look at him play basketball and you know that he’s an athletic gentleman without peer. But a guy who plays that much during the regular season and 42.5 MPG in the playoffs, to say nothing of going deep into the playoffs5, needs some help. He can carry his team for a year or two6, but doesn’t he deserve some support at some point? The Cavs, with younger players, are in a better position to give it.
I’ll be very curious to see what LeBron does. I’m very surprised that Haberstroh did his analysis and appeared to come down so significantly on the Heat’s side when I just don’t think it’s that cut-and-dried.
and would the Heat have fared better with Miller last Finals? ↩
and I can’t fathom a way that they get Love without gutting the roster — Waiters, Thompson, and picks won’t be enough ↩
I will be the first to admit that I don’t have a fully-formed theological position when it comes to transgender issues. This is a topic that will no doubt soon get fuller treatment in the theological world much as homosexuality has over the past decade.
To which I respond simply:
@cjhubbs I’ll say it: when it comes to transgender identity, there does not need to be a theological position past loving each other well.
That is the only necessary and sufficient response.
So much about Christianity’s response to homosexuality has been about whether we’ll let “the gays” into our little club or not. Isn’t the Gospel inclusive by nature? Are we not all sinners? Leaving aside whether homosexuality is a sin, at what point do we start throwing sinners out of our churches?
I’ve never seen an effective call for shunning based on a lack of repentance; the ones that I see pick and choose on which sins to discriminate against. Lord knows that I have enough habitual sins that are personally damaging to me and potentially to others that, should a standard be set, I should be thrown out of a church. That said, because I am a heterosexual white male with an engineering degree, no one is rushing me out of the door, because I look too much like those on the “inside”, especially in this town.
Social scientists are still coming to grips with transgender identity as they study it for origins and meaning. Christians should look past the identity and love the person. We should spread the Gospel and let its power work on the hearts of those who do not believe, and that imperative is true no matter how normative someone’s identity and/or lifestyle are.
Episode 12 of Bryan Allain’s wonderful SchnozCast saw the host asking, “If you were the Commissioner, what’s the one thing that you would change?” Bryan had a suggestion about changing the the foul situation to where you never foul out. I have an idea, and it’s a decision tree.
If you commit six physical fouls before the 8:00 mark of the 4th quarter, you’re done. The chances are that you’re a big man brought in to bang bodies and get Dwight Howard and DeAndre Jordan to the line. If you get six fouls in 40:00, you’re done. Why? The chances are that you’re not a key part of the game. If you’re a star big, you’re not getting a sixth foul that early anyway unless Joey Crawford hates you. Put another way: if you pick up six in 40:00, you’re A) having a really bad night of things and B) playing for a coach that’s too dumb to sit you out enough to get you halfway into the fourth quarter.
From 8:00 to 4:00, any sixth or higher foul awards two shots to the fouled player and possession of the ball to the fouled player’s team.
From 4:00 to 2:00, any sixth or higher foul is two shots, possession, and the offender cannot check in to the game for 2:00. This is much like hockey’s minor penalty situation, except each team would still have five players on the court. The goal is to get the offender off the court but not remove them completely from the game. A late-but-not-very-late foul shouldn’t hamstring the squad.
From 2:00 to the buzzer, any sixth or higher foul is two shots, possession of the ball, and the player sits out the rest of regulation time. If the game goes into overtime, the penalty would carry over to the start of overtime.
Overtime: other than carryover time, a sixth or higher foul is two shots, possession, and the two-minute rule again, unless the clock is at 1:00 or less, at which point the player is gone from the game, regardless of the number of overtimes.
Any two-shots situation would increase to three if the foul is made on a shooter beyond the three-point line.
The calculus here switches from “if I take this foul, I’m gone” to “if I take this foul, we give up shots and a possession, and maybe I’m out for two minutes”. There may be times that you want to take the foul; e.g., Dwight Howard is going to get an emphatic dunk that will light up the home crowd and his teammates. Your rim protection prevents the easy two and shifts play to the foul line, which slows the game down and puts pressure on a shaky foul shooter. Moreover, possession would either come on the side or end line, which puts the offensive team into a half-court situation, which may favor your matchup.
But you get the penalty regardless of make or miss. Foul Dwight but not enough to prevent the dunk, and you give him two shots and possession. That’s a huge swing, so you have to know that the foul will impact the shot.
A new hypothesis suggests that schizophrenia is a developmental disorder, which involves epigenetics—that switching business. Our brain with its 100 billion neurons begins developing in utero but is not fully formed until age 25 or so. Brain development involves neurons migrating from their place of origin to their destination (neuron pruning is also involved). The trip is set in motion by a gene switching on. If there were a glitch in this switching mechanism, it would not become apparent until adolescence, when brain development goes into high gear, and also when schizophrenia commonly flares up. This new insight is promising, but it doesn’t quite capture Susanne’s case, since she was in her early 30s when the disaster arrived.